POTATO: FUNGAL DISEASES
Potato is an important crop which holds guarantee for food to a large number of individuals, particularly in developing nations. The maximum capacity of the yield can be acknowledged just if diseases that influence the harvest are monitored. Major parasitic diseases, for example, late blight, early blight, dark scurf, shrivel/dry decay, mole, fine scab, charcoal spoil and major bacterial ailments like delicate decay, basic scab, bacterial wither and darker decay cause extensive misfortune to potato production in the field. Ailments, for example, late blight, early blight wither essentially influence the harvest/foliage while diseases, for example, dark scurf, fine scab and normal scab distort the tubers and diminish their fairly estimated worth. Some tuber ailments, for example, dry decays show up generally away while others, for example, delicate spoil influence potato tubers at each stage for example infield, stockpiling and in transportation and may cause significant misfortune under specific conditions. Major contagious and bacterial diseases influencing potato crop are looked into here regarding their distinguishing proof, indications on potato plants or tubers, nature of the pathogen in question, the study of disease transmission, control measures and so on.
Potato is a significant food crop after wheat, rice and maize. Over next three decades when the total populace is relied upon to develop by around 100 million per year and put further weight ashore, water and different assets, ranchers in creating nations need to twofold their yield to help the developing numbers. In that situation, potato holds a guarantee for nourishment to a large number of individuals, particularly in creating nations. The maximum capacity of the harvest can be acknowledged just if diseases and pests are monitored. Potato yield can be influenced by roughly 160 diseases and clutters of which 50 are brought about by growths, 10 by microscopic organisms, 40 by infections and others by non-parasitic, or because of obscure causes. Tuber diseases like a regular scab, dark scurf, dry decays, delicate spoil may not crush the yield yet can extraordinarily diminish the quality and attractiveness of the harvest. With the presentation of safe assortments and improved social practices, the malady situation may change now and again which requires intermittent reconnaissance. Diseases may likewise be influenced by any adjustment in nature, for example, dangerous global warming.
Below are some of the main diseases generally spotted in potatoes, which can be cured and prevented by timely actions.
1. Early blight
The pathogen (Alternaria solani) produces dull dark coloured spots, which are encompassed by a darker ring and resembles a bull eye. This parasite stays practical over 1 year in soil, contaminated dry leaves and tainted potato garbage (leaves and tubers) fill in as a hotspot for the essential disease. Wind, water and creepy crawlies are the key elements for the dispersal of conidia and they enter immediate or through stomata. Visit downpours or inexhaustible dampness pursued by dry and warm climate improved the ailment advancement and these conditions are not positive for the potato crop. In India, early blight causes 40% yield misfortunes. Harvest pivot isn’t successful in numerous areas and a convenient application of the fungicide is suggested for better control.
2. Late Blight
Late blight is a sickness of extraordinary concern. The life form liable for the late blight, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is known as the “plant destroyer.” Late blight can possibly be found anyplace potatoes are developed. Two mating types are available, A1 and A2. At the point when one mating type experiences the other, sexual structures are shaped, and treatment happens. Within the sight of just one mating type, P. infestans repeats abiogenetically. In moist conditions, P. infestans produces sporangia and sporangiophores on the outside of the tissue. White, fleece development shows up. Direct germination happens under warm conditions by germ tube. At lower temperatures, sporangia develop in a roundabout way by means of zoospores, requiring free water for motility.
All pieces of the potato plant are helpless to late blight. The illness regularly seems following times of exceptionally wet climate. On exceptionally youthful leaves, sporadic, water-splashed sores show up. Sores are dull dark coloured to dark and can show up little from the start. A green radiance frequently shows up around the injury. Left untreated, injuries augment into round, necrotic patches. The pathogen can kill all living tissue over-the-ground in extreme disease. Injuries showing up on stems are dim darker to dark, with fallen, water-splashed focuses. Injuries on all tissue quickly grow to full rot in only a couple of days. Tuber disease is described by darker, dry, and granular districts that start externally, yet would then be able to expand further into the tuber tissue. After stripping back tuber epidermis, rosy darker to dim dark-coloured, granular tissue is clear. The disease seems dry except if there is auxiliary contamination from delicate spoil. Agamic multiplication of the pathogen requires a living host. Without Late blight side effects on tuber a sexual cycle, P. infestans is a commit parasite. Consequently, endurance between seasons is reliant on tubers. Spores are scattered aeronautically from contaminated material present in the capacity, winnow heaps, and soil. Spores sprout inside hours within the sight of free dampness. Sores can bring about optional sporulation in as little as four days. The pathogen leans towards moderate temperatures from 60-80ºF with leaf wetness 10 hours every day. Sporangia created on leaves and stems can be scattered by wind and downpour occasions. Tubers can get contaminated whenever from planting through gather. Sporangia can be washed down into the dirt from the surface.
Late blight is one of the most examined diseases of any harvest plant, along these lines concentrated coordinated administration strategies exist. No assortments have protection from all late blight strains, yet some have protection from singular strains. Great field seepage and appropriate plant dispersing for ideal air development are alluring. Legitimate sanitation is essential: devastate separate heaps, volunteers, and any contaminated material. Cover separate heaps 2-3 feet deep at least. At planting, seed treatment fungicides exist. Profound hilling can be utilized to shield tubers from sporangia washing off leaves. Screen water system with the goal that leaves dry during the day. Maintain a strategic distance from unreasonable preparation to forestall overhang excess. Numerous great climate models exist to help in the forecast recently blight. Fungicide application is viewed as a basic piece recently hit the executives. Contact fungicides have demonstrated especially valuable by covering the leaves to forestall the advancement of the pathogen. Use at a named portion and at normal interims. Fundamental fungicides can be utilized with fluctuating degrees of progress following disease. Fungicides chose after the disease is identified must be strain-subordinate. A few strains have protection from metalaxyl. In circumstances where the strain stays obscure, utilize a substitute fungicide. Tainted vines can be devastated by herbicide or consuming.
3. Black scurf
Dark scurf is a contagious ailment that causes dark fixes on the outside of tubers that can be focused on. Albeit unattractive it isn’t harmful, yet contaminated seed potatoes can prompt plants with stem cankers.
Dark scurf is brought about by the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, which can exist in the soil without potatoes. It doesn’t benefit from the tubers, and put away tubers with dark scurf on them won’t rot or break down. The dark marks are promptly removed by stripping and cleaning. Heavily-affected seed tubers should not be used, however, as the tips of the emerging sprouts, and later the stems can be more seriously affected.
• Raised, hard, dark patches, unpredictable fit as a fiddle, on the outside of the tuber. These are promptly
scoured or scratched off.
• Darker strands of parasitic material called mycelium can now and again be seen around the dark scurf with the guide of an amplifying glass.
• The scurfs themselves are in actuality minimized masses of mycelium.
• The organism can likewise cause a manifestation is known as stem ulcer on potato grows (new shoots) and stems.
• Unpleasant, darker, depressed patches create on the stem, underneath soil level.
● Use seed tubers liberated from significant contamination.
● Practice crop revolution.
● Stay away from unreasonably early planting, use seed that has been grown before planting, and water plants in dry periods.
● Where dark scurf and stem infection has been an issue beforehand, consider planting into shallower edges. (to help speed rise of the shoots from the dirt)
● Early lifting will diminish the quantities of dark scurfs that structure on the tubers.
4. Powdery scab
Powdery scab Spongospora subterranean is the causal living being of fine scab (Hines, 1976) and this significant pathogen was likewise seen in Asia, Australia, Africa, North and South America and Europe. During essential manifestations, spots are available under the skin surface. Twisted and mole-like development in contaminated tubers and roots fills in as a spot for overwintering as spore balls. Motile essential zoospores attack epidermal cells, root hairs, lenticels or eyes and infiltrate through injuries. During the ruinous period of fine scab, plasmodia produce auxiliary zoospores and spread the ailment more profound into the tissue. Spore balls stay feasible for multi-year in tainted soil. Exceptionally opposition source is the best devices for the issue and S. tuberosum (CP-1742, 8-7) and S. microdontia (BRB/A-24) showing no contamination in counterfeit conditions and common habitat.
5. Skin Spot
Skin Spot It is brought about by Polyscytalum pustulant, the pathogen can contaminate all ground parts and creates light dark coloured sore on roots, stolons and stems. During a delay stockpiling, spots show up on contaminated tubers and pathogen overwinters in soil and tubers and spread to the underground pieces of the plant. Illness manifestations are missing on tainted tubers during collecting and spots are seen after capacity. In the event that the contaminated tubers are not put away appropriately, this infection scatters to sound potato tubers through air conceived conidia. Skin spots on the outside of potato tubers lessen its fairly estimated worth and this pathogen likewise decline the growing of tainted tubers. Social techniques in the field and use of fungicides before capacity are powerful apparatuses to deal with this illness.